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Statistical Tests

Electrical & EMI

SG100 Whitepaper(pdf)


Number of SG100 units

SG100 Delivering Security
Since 1997 to the World

For more than a decade Protego Information AB has delivered the SG100 unit to the world market. No other unit has been so through fully tested and examined by time and the market. The SG100 Security Generator could be considered the gold standard of TRNG devices. With more than 10 000 installations world wide the SG100 has proved it’s worth.

If you want a 100% bullet proof and reliable solution withlow risk, you should choose the SG100 Security Generator as your True Random Number Generator.

SG100 Security Generator is an easy to use, easy to integrate hardware random number generator that connects to a standard serial port. Complete with driver software for Windows and example programs in source. SG100 is the choice if you want to strengthen and enhance your encryption, statistics and simulation software.

The SG100 was the first of our random number products, released in 1996.

For easy use of the device we recommend that you purchase the Protego Software Development Kit PSDK. It could be used for development of new applications supporting the SG100 device. You will get driver redistribution rights for your application with the purchase of the PSDK.

The device is connected to the computer through the 9-pin serial port. Power is taken from the port. Supports all bit rates up to 115,200 bit/s. Throughput is about 9.2 kBytes/s for the 115,200-bit/s rate. The output is processed using statistical and cryptographic methods, and passes any statistical test. Resistant to external electromagnetic fields and high resistance against power fluctuations.


Quantum physics random number source.
High resistance to RF-fields (30V/m) guarantees sustained
operation in an industrial environment.
Very low emitted RF field makes random numbers difficult to intercept.
Windows-95/98/XP and Windows-NT-2k driver delivered with product.
This driver is in a DLL form. The driver support Visual Basic and Delphi.
Linux/Solaris/Windows driver delivered as a source code.
High output speed: 9.2 kBytes/s.
Device powered from the computer port - no batteries or cables.
Runtime electrical and statistical testing.
Easy to include drivers in OEM product.
Fast response to the calling process
Interface for multiple processes reading random numbers.
Windows DLL driver accept up to four SG100:s.
No cryptographic or statistical weaknesses.
Driver can be written for any platform.
Pass the Diehard test.
Pass the Crypt-X tests.

 Runtime Package, Protego SDK (PSDK)

This product is a well established random number generation access for many years. The interface is the interface between your code and the SG100 or SG100 Evo USB. The devices are interchangeable in your application if you use the PSDK. Example source code for many applications is included:

This utility will work as a lotto drawing with many usable options. lotto BALLS DRAWS EXTRABALLS ITERATIONS where BALLS is the number of balls in the urn of the lotto; DRAWS is the number of balls drawn from the urn; EXTRABALLS is the number of balls to draw in addition in each drawing;
ITERATIONS is the number of lotto draws to perform; The first "DRAWS" balls from the urn will be output sorted in numerical order and the "EXTRABALLS" will be added unsorted.

Code Generator
This utility creates 8 digit numeric codes up to a user defined maximum value. The software generates the numeric codes with duplicate check.

Character generator
This utility generates sequences of characters at random. The characters that are allowed to be used are user defined.

Binary Gen
This utility reads data from the SG100 and the SG100 EVO and saves it in files. It reads the amount of data you specify and saves it to one or more files.

C# and VB Net source code example projects also included

Linux Driver 32bit/64bit support

The included Linux driver is a source code that may be integrated with
an application. Random numbers are obtained by a fuction call. The Linux driver
compile on Windows, Linux, and Solaris. The Linux driver is easy to modify and
adopt to different architectures and application areas.

Solaris Random Number Server
We have an Intel 32 bit Solaris-8 driver, intended for more complex
situations. This driver run multiple SG100:s and distribute the random
numbers using a local network. The Solaris driver include a disk buffer.
Download a ZIP with additional information: Solaris Server ZIP.

Prices and Availability

The SG100 is available in two basic packages; Developer and Runtime.

Developer Package including one unit

One SG100 Generator.
Drivers/License for the Win32 platform (Microsoft Windows 95/98, Windows NT
and Windows 2000) in DLL format with C/C++ header file.
Demo Programs, compiled to EXE including C/C++ source, that open and use the driver DLLs.
Hardware Test Programs (EXE only) for the SG100 hardware.
The license right to use the drivers with SG100 Runtime.

Runtime Package, Protego SDK (PSDK)

You can purchase a Protego SDK (PSDK) separately. The price is 110 Euros. The kit is available for electronic download after payment. The kit must only be used with genuine Protego products.



Number of units

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Prices and specification subject to change without prior notice.

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Statistical Tests

The simplest statistical test is to check if the SG100 random number strings has about the same number of ones and zeroes. A test program (N1_TEST.EXE, included in Developer Package) is written that counts bytes and bits. The output is given in absolute and relative frequency.

To make comparison easy the difference between a relative frequency of 50% and observed frequency is computed relative to the standard deviation. These values are seldom higher than three, for random output.

Note, that as the program outputs a large number of sigma values, it sometimes happens that a sigma value higher than three is found. This is normal for random strings. If in doubt, accuracy can be increased by counting a longer string.

If we, as an example, count 6,400,000 bytes and find 25,603,990 "one" bits then we have a relative frequency of 0.50007793 Sigma = 1.1 That is 50.008% one bits.

To increase accuracy we count 441,600,000 bytes. We find 1,766,378,269 "one" bits yielding a frequency of 0.49999385 ( Sigma = -0.7) That was very close to 50% "one" bits and 50% "zero" bits. Desperately we can read 1,651,200,000 bytes and count to 6,604,734,712 "one" bits and the frequency is 0.49999506 ( Sigma = -1.1).

Download complete test results (25K)

pLab load test of the SG100

The pLAB Research Group of the Institut für Mathematik, Universität Salzburg has conducted a load test of the SG100™. The report contains commented simulation results for SG100™. Each page contains the plot of the truncated Kolmogorov-Smirnov-values and the according uppeirtail-probabilities for the Load Test'(LT).

Download the The pLab Load Tests for the SG100 Security Generator

Link to the pLab Team


The SG100 also passes the Diehard test. The Diehard test, by George Marsaglia, consists of several statistical counts that should have a specified distribution if the input string is random. By comparing observed counts to a theoretical count we can see if a string is random or not.

For a sample of size 500: mean SG100.DAT using bits 6 to 29 1.942




0 70. 67.668
1 142. 135.335
2 139.


3 86.


4 36. 45.112
5 18. 18.045
6 to INF 9.


Chisquare with 6 d.o.f. = 2.61 p-value= .143850

The observations above are to few to give high accuracy. This problem originates in that the Diehard program do not adjust the sample sizes to a larger test file.

Download SG100 Diehard test results

Link to the Diehard test

Robert Davies test of SG100

Robert Davies have tested hardware random number generators, including the SG100, for a lottery application.

Link to Robert Davies lottery page

Electrical & RFI/EMI Measurements

EMC Test Reports

EMC Test Report: Emission of electromagnetic disturbances

EMC Test Report: Immunity to electromagnetic disturbances

Electrical Characteristics and Measurements — SG100 eBook

A schematic diagram of the SG100 circuit is displayed below. To the left we find the
diode where the noise signal originates. To the right is the SG100 output. You may click on the oscilloscope icons to obtain a graph of the signal. Power spectra of the frequencies of the signal may be obtained by the FFT icons.

You can also choose to download the test in pdf format
Electrical Characteristics and Measurements.pdf



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